Abstract

Our efforts over the past moths have culminated in a robust lab-tested prototype of the OPEnSampler we endearingly call "Bertha." We've determined this will be our in-house lab prototype that we will use as a testing bed for integrating new features and hardware. Lessons learned experimenting with Bertha will directly translate into field-deployable OPEnSampler versions to be distributed for use. This post details the technical specifications of Bertha, features, Serial Commands, and use cases.

Technical Specs

  • Frame dimensions are 24in x 12in x 12in and made out of 40mmx40mm extrusion.
  • 2 12VDC Peristaltic pumps (250ml water pumped in 2min)
  • 24 250ml aluminum-lined Mylar bags (spout packs)
  • 25 12VDC valves (24 valves attached to bags, 25th valve is used as a system flush outlet valve)
  • Arduino Uno, Microprocessor
  • Custom PCB with TPIC power-shits registers for handling valve actuation
  • Motor driver board
  • High Precision, Temp-compensated Real-Time Clock, for microprocessor sleep/wake(sample) scheduling.
  • Mode switch toggles between Sampler operation modes: standard operation mode, serial command mode.
  • EEPROM saves configuration of sampler parameters (sample duration, flush duration, next valve to sample, etc).
  • Serial command set for configuring the sampler's behavior out in the field and for sending discrete commands (puppet-string) to turn on/off discrete components of the sampler. e.g. turn pups on/off/reverse and open/close specified valves.
  • Power-save Sleep mode, for ling battery life in the field. At the moment, drawing 24 250ml samples should require just 1 Amp Hour of a 12VDC battery. In standard operation mode, sampler stands by in low-power sleep in between taking samples. In serial command mode, electronics remain awake and stand by for configuration commands from computer.

Modularity

In consultations with many different researchers hoping to use this OPENSampler, we identified that the technical specifications of the sampler will vary depending on the context of use. This includes: What kind of water source is being sampled, what is being tested or analyzed, and environmental conditions and considerations in the field. To this end, we decided to make a "core" system that would be extensible using attachments for particular deployment contexts. This architecture is not dissimilar with many vacuum cleaner systems, where the core remains immutable but changes utility based on the attachments used.

Packaging: The frame is designed to be dropped into a variety of different "packages" depending on the field requirements. In many instances, a waterproof duffle bag may suffice for carrying the device into back-country environments. Rigid stack-able boxes made from corrugated plastic may be desirable for other deployments. For field deployments requiring samples be temperature protected (from wither extreme heat or cold), dropping this into a rolling lockable travel cooler such as the Pelican 80qt Elite.

Use

Switch the sampler into "serial command mode." Not required, but should be done for best practice. After programming the Uno over USB, you may either switch the sampler directly into standard operation mode or send serial commands to configure your sampler's parameters. Switching modes back and fourth may be done at anytime. In operation mode, a sample cycle is initiated whenever the specified time has elapsed.

Each sample cycle consists of the following states:

  1. System Flush
  2. Sample Draw (in next bag in sequence)
  3. System Sleep/standby

Samples may be removed from the device without manually removing bags. This is achieved by switching the sampler into serial command mode and typing commands into the Arduino Serial Monitor window to draw samples out one by one in any desired order. See commands below. This process may be automated (and should be) using a program to send a sequence of timed commands. A sample python script can be found on the project GitHub site.

Sampler Configurable Parameters and Factory Defaults Are:

  • IsDaily = True (Take a sample either daily or at a set periodic rate throughout the day)
  • 8:00 (default daily time to take sample)
  • Sampler Duration = 100 seconds (takes 120 seconds to fill 250ml)
  • Flush Duration = 30 seconds (this will need to be set based on the length of tubing away from main sampler - longer tubing requires longer flush duration for full system purge)
  • Sample volume = 250 (in ml, this isn't being used right now, but there in case features need in the future)
  • Sample Valve Number = 1 (next bag to draw sample into)
  • Sample Period = 3 (if the IsDaily flag is FALSE,

The above parameters may be changed at anytime by switching into Serial Command Mode. Parameters are saved in EEPROM and are preserved even if the sampler looses power. Sampler operation will proceed with the new configuration behavior when switched back into operation mode.

Serial Command Set

  • CLK, Checks the current RTC time, Hr:Min:Sec - useful for checking before using SA to set sample alarm
  • SAD (int)X (int)X, sets "Daily Sample Alarm" Hr:Mn to take samples daily at time. Uses 24hr format.
        ex: SAD 9 30 sets sample alarm to 9:30AM daily.
        ex: SAD 16 22 sets sample alarm to 4:22PM daily.
        Also sets Is_Daily flag for initialization if power-down restart, clears Is_Hourly flag
  • SAP (int)X, sets "Periodic Sample Alarm" to take samples at specified period duration in Min.
        ex: SAH 30 sets sample alarm to go off every 30min.
        ex: SAH 47 sets sample alarm to go off 47min.
  • FD (int)X, sets "Flush duration" period in ms, should be about 20sec, but will change with the length of tubing you use to get from sampler to water source
  • SD (int)X, sets "Sample Duration" time that pumps run water into each bag in milliseconds
      ** removed for this version : SV (int)X, sets "Sample Volume" in ml, a transform of Sample Duration, may not be 100% accurate, 2min per 250ml,
  • VN (int)X, Sets the next valve/bag to place sample. Sampler saves curent valve number during operation in EEPROM in case of power failure, it picks up where it left off. This ensures you can reset the valve count before each new deployment, or manually skip to next available bag should the sampler malfunction
  • RST, Full system "factory" reset - set default sample period, sample duration, reset vlve counter, writes defaults to EEPROM (over-wirghting previous settings)

Pupet-String Commands:

  • Vx (int)#, Turn valve on/off where x is valve number (starting at 1, V0 is flush valve). # is 1 for on (open) and 0 for off (close) example: V1 1 opens valve 1. V1 0 closes it.
  • M #, turn motor on/off and direction. #=0 for off, #=1 for draw water into sampler, #=-1 for draw water out of sampler    example: M 1 will begin drawing water into sampler.

From here, you may use Arduino IDE, Python, or other software to send timed sequences to sampler. For example: V0 1 followed by M 1will begin flush.  The sequence (press return where you see / ) V0 0 / V1 1 / M 1will disable flush and draw water into bag1
    You could also make a "macro" or timed program in something like Python for drawing water out of the sampler sequentially into your analysis machine without removing bags! Example of this is on the project GitHub site.

Features to be integrated for Zurich Version

The Zurich version is underway, with frame being constructed out of much lighter 15mmx15mm extrusion. This will make the total sampler weight (without filled with water) about 10lbs!

Packaging: The frame is designed to be dropped into a variety of different "packages" depending on the field requirements. The package for Zurich is intended to be a waterproof duffle bag. However, for field deployments requiring samples be temperature protected (from wither extreme heat or cold),

Currently, all sampler status messages are reflected on the Arduino IDE Serial Monitor window when sampler is attached to host computer. We're evaluating an OLED display that will show all status information during sampler operation.  There will also be a wake button for the display that will show the status of the sampler at anytime during its sleep cycle.

Features for future versions

One major issue is not knowing the operational status of your sampler when left out in the field. Instead of being forced to check in on the sampler in person, we plan to integrate a GSM extension for the core, which will send updates over texts or emails using any 2G SIM card.